1. as translators have to be well educated

1. Introduction     The term ‘translation’ has long been discussed by many English language specialists ever since communications between humans started. Translation is somehow connected to all fields of knowledge as translators have to be well educated about the nature of any text they are undertaking. Therefore, various types of translation have emerged to address the current developments as well as the different types of source texts to be rendered into target texts. This paper highlights the meaning of translation in general with narrow focus on technical translation. It then presents a sample English text (SL) about “Tidal Power” that is translated into Arabic and analysed in terms of the techniques deployed in the TL.  1.1. Meaning and definition of translation     Translation is simply the process of carrying a message from one language sphere (source language) to another (target language). It has lately gained more scholarly attention as technology advanced and led to more facilitated methods of communication among people. Form a scholarly point of view, translation according to Nida, “consists of reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalence of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style” {1}. It is therefore a process of establishing the closest message found in SL into TL taken into account most, if not all, of the linguistic features of the original text. For other translation specialists, like Newmark, the central task for translation is “rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text” {2}.1.2. Scope of Translation     Although the main role of a translator is to transfer the core message of a given source language into a specific target language, s/he cannot easily deal with all types of texts as there are various texts with different linguistic and genre features. In this respect, the main corpus of this paper is to analyse a technical English text taken form a random online source about “Tidal Power and its methods of generation” {3}. The text is translated into Arabic, and a corpus-analysis approach is adopted to point out the difficulties of terminology and the translation techniques deployed to better formulate the final target language; these strategies are then identified, categorized and supported with samples from both texts. However, it is worth mentioning here that not all types of translation techniques are analysed for methodological reasons. So we are giving more focus on the translation shifts found during the translation process and how technical terms were handled. 1.3. Technical Translation of the text     Technical translation is basically concerned with the scientific and technical aspects of a text by means of observing the specialized terminologies connected to this or that type of texts. It may cover many kinds of specialized texts in science, technology, and also in other disciplines such as economics and medicine (Williams and Chesterman, 2002) {4}. It requires potential translators to have a high command of subject knowledge and the relevant terminology. In the case of the original text at hand “Tidal Power”, it is obviously considered technical as it maintains a great level of technical terms along with other features of technicalities like directness and clarity of meaning, conciseness, accuracy and objectivity, to mention but a few. The text is analysed in terms of the following areas:1.3.1. Features of technical text sentences     We can see that the most distinguished feature of the technical text sentences is the clarity of style. This is achieved in the ST by using simple choices of the sentence patterns. In fact, simple sentence structures in the “Tidal Power” text are easily detectable, with a limited range of dependent clauses. Most of the sentences in the ST are not very long and they do not have many clauses inside them. However, there are still cases where we find long sentence patterns due to the insertion of relative clauses. Some examples of the simple sentence patterns found in the original text are listed in table (A) below.Simple sentence patterns in STThe tides rise and fall in eternal cycles. S V AFlood generation system that generate power from the incoming tide are possible. S V CNavigation and recreation can be affected. S VIt will depend on the local geography and marine ecosystem. S V A Tidal fences can also harness the energy in the tides. S V O(Table A)1.3.2. Frequency of technical terms     The definition of terminology in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary is “the technical or special terms used in a business, art, science, or special subject” {5}. The “Tidal Power” text is full of technical terms that are extensively repeated almost in each line of the text. Most of these terms have accurate meanings and they refer to real objects used in their respective field of application, thus establishing an unambiguous comprehension for the translator who has to have a satisficing mastery of the subject knowledge. Table (B) includes a list of the most common terms that are frequently repeated throughout the text.Frequent technical terms in STTides and ebbs turbineflow barragegeneration hydroelectricplants estuarybasin fence(Table B)1.3.3. Types of compounding sentences     As mention above, the majority of the sentence patterns used in ST are simple and to the point (examples have been mentioned before in table (I)), with a very limited range of compound sentences that contain two or more ‘complete’ sentences joined by a coordinator like “for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.” Nonetheless, there are few complex sentences which usually have one independent sentence linked to an independent one by a subordinator. For instance, in the sentence, ‘since few tidal barrages have been built, very little is known about the full impact of tidal power systems on the local environment.’ The complete “independent” sentence, ‘very little is known about the full impact of tidal power systems on the local environment’ is joined by the incomplete “dependent” sentence, ‘since few tidal barrages have been built,’ making it a complex one.1.3.4. How passive sentences are dealt with     The ‘passive voice refers to the exchange in the position of the subject and the object of a sentence. As any technical text, the ST includes some sentences that are expressed in passive where the doer of the action “the subject” is hidden or not important. The use of passive voice is typical for any technical text in English; in other words, English technical texts tend to use the passive more frequently than other types of texts. It is therefore not surprizing to say that the “Tidal Power” text is no exception form this assumption. The majority of the sentences in the TL preserve the same passive patterns of ST. Yet, there are still very few exceptions where the ST passive sentence is transformed into active in TT (shown in table (C) below). It is advisable to be careful when using the passive voice excessively in TL as it may lead to serious confusion, especially when the passive sentences are close to each other, making it very difficult for the translator to comprehend who is doing what, and thus affecting the translation as a whole. SL TLPassive to passive Tide mills have been used … ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? …Passive to passive Very little is known about …. ?? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?? …Passive to active The tidal forces produced by the moon and sun … ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? …(Table C)2. Textual Analysis for the translation techniques used in TL     The next analysis briefly sheds the light on the main types of translation shifts that are engaged in the TL. To clarify, ‘translation shifts’ are linguistic changes encountered while translating the SL into TL. In his ‘A Linguistic Theory of Translation’ (1965), Catford mentioned the term “Translation Shift” to refer to the kind of change that happens when there is no formal correspondence between SL and TL. These shifts occur on different levels of the grammar and they are listed as follows:2.1. Structural Level     Structural shift is the most commonly used form of translation shifts that can be found in any TL. It is the change of grammatical sentence structure that results in the TL. The table (D) below shows some sample sentences in SL that underwent structural shifts when translated into TL.SL sentence structures (S + V ) TL sentence structures  (V + S )The generation of electricity from tides is similar to hydroelectric generation. ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????????????.The United States has no tidal plants and only a few sites. ??? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???????.Tidal fences can be used in unconfined basins. ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??????.Tidal fences are not free of environmental and economic impacts. ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????????.The tides rise and fall in eternal cycles ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?????Tidal turbines will have to be much sturdier than wind turbines. ??? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ?????????? ????????? Tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????? …(Table D)     We can clearly notice that the structural shifts above are obligatory to use by the translator as there is no formal correspondence in the Arabic TL and because the construction of Arabic language sentences (V + S + R) differs from that of the English language (S + V + R). However, it is worth mentioning here that sometimes the translator may maintain the same SL sentence structure (S + V + R) if s/he opt to follow the theme-rheme pattern in TL. 2.2. Noun phrase level     Shifts may also occur at the level of noun phrase “NP” where the change can be either to higher level (upward shift from NP to clause or sentence) or to a lower level (downward shift from NP to word or morpheme). In the text we are undertaking, most of the noun phrases in ST are translated into equivalent noun phrases in TT. These types of NP shifts are classified in the following table (E):NP to a higher level unitSL TLSluice gates on the barrage ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????The basin ????? ?????? ??????? ????Barrage stations ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????Future electricity generation ???? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????????(Table E)2.3. Word level (unit and class shifts)     Another types of translation shift is the shift in the word level. This is a particular feature for the word level, and it has two main categories. The first one is called “unit shift” which is a change in the rank “the grammar level”. The second category is “class shift” which is the change from one part of speech to another; sometimes it is also called “transposition” to refer to the change in the positions of some grammatical units. Tables F and G show various examples of both shifts.Word level (Unit shifts)SL TL Remarks(By) the gravitational pull (?)??? ??? Word to morphemePossible ?? ?????? ??????? Word to groupThe basin ????? ?????? ??????? ???? Word to groupgeneration ????? ????? Word to group(To) hydroelectric generation (?)????? Word to morpheme(In) two directions ?)??????? Word to morphemeinvolves ????? ?? Word to group(To) fill (?)??? Word to morpheme)Of( tidal power system (?)????? Word to morphemecaisson ?????? ?????? Word to group(Un)confined (???) ?????? Morpheme to word(As) in a channel (?)??????? Word to morphemeto install ??? ?????? Word to groupHeavier (????) ???? Morpheme to wordSuffered (from) ??? (?)?????? Word to morphemeWidely ??? ???? ???? Word to groupUseful form (of) power ??????? ??????? (?)????? Word to morpheme(Table F)Word level (class shifts / transposition)SL TL RemarksCaused ???? Verb to nounSimilar ???? Adjective to verbEternal cycles ????? ????? Transposition from pre to postmodificationGravitational ???? Adjective to nounseason ?????? Noun to adjectiveTo produce ?????? Verb to nountidal ???? Adjective to nounto fill ???? Verb to nounhigh ?????? Adjective to nounTo empty ???????? Verb to nounThe incoming tides ???? ?????? Transposition from pre to postmodificationgenerate ????? Verb to nounFlood-generating systems ????? ??? ??????? ??????? Transposition from pre to postmodificationeffect ???? Noun to verbfood ???????? Noun to adjectivethe local marine food chain ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? Transposition from pre to postmodificationtidal power systems ?????? ?????? ?????? Transposition from pre to postmodificationproduce ????????? Verb to nounincrease ????? Verb to nounprotect ????? Verb to nounconstruction costs ?????? ??????? Transposition from pre to postmodificationinstall ????? Verb to nounwind ?????? Noun to adjectivefuture ??????? Noun to adverb(Table G)2.4. Intra-system level     The last type of shifts that may happen while translating is ‘intra-system’ shift. It refers to the kind of shifts that occur internally within the system of the language itself. It may have something to do, say, the genitive construction system, the gender/number system, the plural/singular system, the attachment or detachment of articles, and so on. Some of these example are listed in the following table (H):Intra-system shiftsSL TL RemarksFlooding ????????? Singular/plural system shiftThe construction ????? De/attachment of articles The environment ?????? De/attachment of articles changes ???? Singular/plural system shiftTides ???? Singular/plural system shiftRange ?????? Singular/plural system shiftThe level ????? De/attachment of articles The simplest ?????? De/attachment of articles A barrage ?????? De/attachment of articles The generation ????? De/attachment of articles A dam ??? De/attachment of articles The system ?????? De/attachment of articles Shoreline ??????? Singular/plural system shiftThe construction ????? De/attachment of articles The sedimentation ???? De/attachment of articles The environment ?????? De/attachment of articles A channel ??????? Singular/plural system shiftisland ??? Singular/plural system shiftcost ?????? Singular/plural system shiftVelocities ???? ????? Singular/plural system shiftA form ???? De/attachment of articles (Table H)2.5. How technical terms are handled     Since the text at hand is largely a technical text, then it is highly recommended to touch on the way technical terms are handled in the TL. Hence, the next analysis will deal with some other translation strategies that have been deployed to handle the technical terms in the text. Here, the theoretical basis for this analysis is the model of Vinay and Darbelnet (Munday 2008) who divided translation strategies into “Direct” and “Oblique”. Other translation techniques like Ishtiqaaq, Majaaz and Blending are also applied to handle the frequent technical terms in the ST.2.5.1. Direct translation     Direct translation is a method of translation between the SL and TL in a simple straightforward way. It includes literal translation, borrowing and calque. In the “Tidal Power” text, there are many instances for the application of these strategies, and they will be listed respectively in the following tables:2.5.1.1. Literal translation: it is the strategy of word-for-word translation. It refers to the direct transferring of sentences in the SL to TL as in table (I). It is most common in the translation of languages that belong to the same or similar family.Literal translation SL TLTidal barrage ?????? ?????Fence structure ???? ??????(Table I)2.5.1.2. Borrowing: it means translating the terms or expression to the TL in the same way they are found in the SL. In other words, borrowing is a strategy of maintaining the same actual term in both source and target languages. The one example found in the text is the word ‘turbine’ in table (J) below.Borrowing SL TLTurbine ??????(Table J)2.5.1.3. Calque: Similar to borrowing, calquing adds to the authenticity of the translated term by merely preserving the same compound or phrase, that is to say, transferring it in a literal translation. Calque is usually used when the structures of the TL can best convey the meaning of the same structure in the SL, (table K).Calque SL TLTidal energy ???? ????(Table K)2.5.2. Oblique translation:     Oblique translation is the second type of translation strategies in which many sub-strategies are utilized to achieve a proper understandable meaning of the SL in the TL. Admittedly, the focus of the current study will be only on the most repetitive techniques generally found in technical texts. Oblique translation techniques are:2.5.2.1. Transposition: it is a change of word-class without loss of meaning. (Referred to earlier in 2.3. section, table G).2.5.2.2. Modulation: it is a change in semantic perspective or viewpoint of the SL. It is mainly applicable to be used when there is no equivalent found in the SL. It covers various areas of showing the semantically different perspective such as, ‘negation of the opposite, passive-active change and others’ as in table L.Modulation  SL TL Remarks Very little is known about ?? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?? Negation of the oppositeThe tidal forces produced by the moon and sun ????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? Passive-active change(Table L)2.5.3. Other translation techniques used:2.5.3.1. Ishtiqaq: it is the derivation of the TL words from their basic roots – table M.IshtiqaqSL TL RootFlows ???? ????construction ????? ????(Table M)2.5.3.2. Majaaz: it the use of existing Arabic words to refer to new terms – table N.MajaazSL TLestuary ???harness ?????barrage ????(Table N)2.5.3.3. Blending (Naht): it is the process of combining two words in one to form a new meaning- table O.BlendingSL TLhydroelectric ????????(Table O)3. Conclusion     The ultimate goal of this paper was to analyse the different translation strategies used when undertaking a technical translation. The main study corpus was an English specialized text on ‘Tidal Power Generation’ which was translated into Arabic and analysed in the light of the theories of Vinay and Darbelnet (in Munday 2008) about ‘translation techniques’ and Catford (1965) on ‘translation shifts’.     It is logical, in the end, to note that no one strategy for all the terms was applied and that it all depends on the closest meaning or equivalence the translator may feel appropriate in the TL.se less complex sentence structures as they sometimes complicate meanings for the translator as well as the reader of the ST.