1 be limited to supplemental dampers which are

1 INTRODUCTION

The vibration control method can be
classified into active control, passive control, hybrid control, semi-active control.
Among these The passive control is more studied and applied to the existing
buildings than the others due to its advantages like , a passive vibration
control system that does not require any external power source for its
operation and utilizes the motion of the structure to develop the control
forces. Dampers are placed throughout a structure to
absorb either kinetic or strain energy transmitted from the ground into the
primary system.  Damping in
structures can significantly reduce the displacement and acceleration
responses, and decrease the
shear forces, along the height of buildings. Energy dissipation in buildings
can be confined mainly to supplemental dampers. Damage to the building can be
limited to supplemental dampers which are easier to replace than structural
components.

2. LITERATURE
REVIEW –

A. 
METALLIC DAMPER

Metallic damper also called as the metallic yielding
energy dissipation device resist the imposed loads act on the  structure 
during seismic event. The structural response can be reduced when
subjected to wind and earthquake by mounting metallic yield damper into the
buildings, thereby reduces energy-dissipating demand on primary structural
members and minimizes possible structural damage. Its effectiveness and low
cost are now well recognized and extensively tested in the past in civil
engineering. The MYDs are mainly made of some special metal or alloy material
and is easy to be yielded and have good performance of energy dissipation when
it services in the structure which suffered by seismic events.

Fig. 1 Metallic yield damper

The metallic yield damper is one type of displacement-correlated and
passive energy dissipation damper. First hysteric damper were implemented by Skinner
et al, (1980) the metallic dampers are made up of mild steel plates. The vast
study is going on different metallic damper and many on them are currently in
application. X- Plate damper is one type of metallic damper made up of group of
plates, its mechanism is more useful during earthquake, Pujari and Bakre, (2011)
investigated the seismic
effectiveness of an XPD as a seismic
protective system for industrial piping systems.  They studied seismic performance of a
piping system under important parametric variation of the damper properties for an industrial piping system under real earthquake ground motions and the effect of X-plate damper to
control the seismic response.  There
exist optimal combinations of the properties of an XPD for which maximum energy
is dissipated by the XPD in the controlled piping system. The energy dissipated
in the piping system is dependent on the thickness of the XPD and the input
ground motion.
  

F.Nateghi-E et al, (2008)  Investigate
the behaviour of filled accordion Metallic damper FMAD, as a
supplemental passive energy absorption device for seismic design and seismic
retrofitting of structures. Application of the FMAD in base isolation and
chevron bracing in frame stories. A hysteretic system including of accordion
thin-walled metallic tube has been suggested for this damper. Finite elements
model and nonlinear dynamic analysis have been used in their studies; they
found that Accordion metallic damper can be used for retrofitting the existing
structures against the earthquake. Raul Oscar Curadelli and Jorge Daniel Riera  (2004) investigate the effectiveness of
metallic dampers in building under seismic excitation. It proved that seismic
retrofitting and new design of frame building structure, external energy
dissipation system may be advantageously used. 
In 1977 first time   Robinson W.H.
and Tucker A. G. did the experimental study on lead extrusion damper. There
after (1993) W. J cousins and T.E. Porritt suggest some improvement in lead
extrusion damper. The lead extrusion damper proved efficient at different
temperature. The characteristic of lead extrusion damper have not  been affected with the increased number of
cycle.  C. C. Patel (2017) investigate
the response behaviour of two parallel structures coupled by lead extrusion damper
and found effective in seismic response reduction of adjacent structure.           

B. FRICTION DAMPER   

Friction
damper is one of the simple and inexpensive types of damper. Friction damper
consist of series of steel plates which are specially treated to develop most
reliable friction. Friction damper utilizes the mechanism of solid friction
that develops between two solid bodies sliding relative

Fig 2.
Friction damper

to one
another to provide desired energy dissipation.  
 Plates are clamped together with
bolts and allowed to slip at predetermined load.  The performance of friction damper is not
affected by temperature, and stiffness degradation against aging. Pall et al (1979) conducted static and
dynamic test on verity of sliding elements with different surface treatments. Friction damper slips at  optimum load and dissipate major portion of
seismic energy during the seismic event. In 1987 Filiatrault and Cherry
states some limitation of Palls friction damper that Palls damper was only
valid   if slip during every cycle. They proposed a
detailed macroscopic model using brake lining pads at intersection of cross
braces which improve the physical properties of damper.   Some alternate friction damper designs are
proposed in some resent literature. Roik et al., (1988) investigate the use of
three stage friction grip elements. The recent friction damper manufactured by
Fluor Daniel known1 as EDR i.e. Energy Dissipating restraint. It consists of
steel compression wedges and bronze friction wedges to transform the axial
spring force into normal pressure acting outward on the cylinder wall. In 1992  Suzuki et al., investigated the  performance of friction damper on piping
system. In 2006 bi-directly interaction of friction force was suggested by
Bakre et al.,   has significant effects on response of the
piping on friction support. In 2001 Y. L. Xu et.al,. investigate the use of
semi active friction damper in to control the response of wind exited truss
tower. That was the first known attempt  compared
with passive friction dampers, the semi-active friction dampers are more robust
and versatile for improving both serviceability and strength performances of
wind excited large truss towers. In 2002 Imad H Mualla investigates the
performance of steel frames with new friction damper during seismic event.  The application of the new FDD presents a feasible alternative to
the conventional ductility-based earthquake-resistant design both for new
construction and for upgrading existing structures. A.V. Bhaskarao and  R.S. Jangid (2005) did the seismic analysis
of connected structure with friction damper.  Ceredic Marsh (2000) investigated the
application of friction in conjunction with rigid structural frames. Both in  steel and concrete it gives the most
economical protection against seismic activity for framed medium-rise
buildings.. Continues study is going improvement of friction damper and their utilization.

 

C.  VISCOELASTIC
DAMPER

Viscoelastic damper includes viscoelastic
solid damper and viscoelastic fluid damper. In 1969 Mahmoodi presented the
concept of vicoelastic damper. 

Fig 3 Visco Elastic Damper

 Viscoelastic
damper comprises two viscoelastic layers bonded between three parallel rigid
surface. In 1970 this type of damper was used in New York for controlling wind
vibration in twin towers of world trade centre. The experimental and analytical
study of Zhang said that viscoelastic damper can reduce the response in steel
structure effectively. Seismic application of VED begins in 1993 for a seismic
retrofit project of 13-story Santa Clara County building in San Jose, A full
scale vibration test was performed by Lai et al., (1995) design procedure for
damper was developed by scaling up the size of viscoelastic material.  Viscous damping walls were recently used for a
seismic protection in newly constructed SUT- building in Shizuka city, Japan as
described by Miyazaki and Mitsusaka (1992) . Total 170 damping walls are
employed within the steel frame. Based on time history analysis the damping
walls reduce response by 70-80%..  K.C. Chang et al., (1988) investigate on the
seismic analysis and design of structure with viscoelastic damper. the design
procedure used by them proves economic and safe 
  alternative for seismic
resistant structure under seismic design regulation. Lin and chopra in 2003 studied the response of
one story system with viscoelastic damper attached to flexible braces and fluid
viscous damper attached to rigid chevron braces. They showed that asymmetric
system with this damper can be estimated with sufficient accuracy for design. B
Samali et al,. (2006) investigated the uses of viscoelastic damper for reducing
wind and earthquake forces. Examples of earlier installations were given
some detail to clearly demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of
viscoelastic damper as viable, cost effective and maintenance free damper
system to control the motion of dynamically sensitive structures subjected to
environmental loads. M. P.
Singh et al,. did the  seismic analysis of structure with
viscoelastic damper on mathematical model. It seen that VE damper effective in
control of seismic response of structure. 

 

D.  VISCOUS DAMPER-

Viscous damper
works on fluid flow through orifice. By adding fluid viscous dampers, the
energy input from a transient is absorbed. Fluid damping technology was
validated for seismic use by extensive testing in the period 1990-1993.In 2003
Robert Mcnamara and Douglas Taylor investigate the application of fluid viscous
damper in high rise structure to suppress the anticipated wind induced acceleration.

Fig 4
Viscous damper

 

The
application of viscous damper proved very cost effective. Yukihiro
Tokuda  and Kenzo Taga (2008) worked on
structure in which vicious damper installed in basement soft story. The paper
introduce in practical use of viscous damper. In 2012 D Naarkhede and R.
Sinha did the experiment to evaluate the performance of viscous damper for
shock loads. They discuss the mathematical formulation and relative performance
of structure subjected to short duration pulse excitation. Samuele
Infanti et al,. Described the technology of viscous damper in high rise
building. Their study  show that viscous
dampers can be effectively used in different configurations to reduce the
response of high-rise buildings to wind and earthquake  In 2015 Jinaxing chen et al,. investigated  the use of viscous damper in high rise
structure for seismic response control. The seismic responses of
the structure with viscous dampers are studied by time-history analysis. The
investigation result showed that viscous dampers substantially reduce the
structural dynamic response.

A Ravitheja (2016) investigated  the seismic evaluation of multistory RC
building with and without fluid Viscous Damper. The research show that viscous
damper effectively reduce the building response by selecting optimum damping coefficient

CONCLUSION

The use of
seismic control system has increased in these resent years but selecting the best
damper for reducing vibration in structure in seismic event is necessary. The
controlling reduces damage significantly by increasing the structural safety,
serviceability and prevents the building form collapse during the earthquake. In
this paper the basic concept of passive seismic response control devices is
mentioned and their resent development and application are discussed. The
experimental and analytical investigate carried out by various richer clearly
demonstrate that the seismic control method has potential to improve the
seismic performance of structure.