A. Issue Background
Sine The 21st
Century began, the world’s attention focus on Gender Equality and Women’s
Empowerment more increasing. In Indonesia itself, Gender Equality and Women’s
Empowerment exist since R.A Kartini fought for women’s rights especially in
Education. Issues of Gender Equality still be a serious problem. In recent
times, on mass media, books, seminars, discussion and so on have discussed
protests and lawsuits related to injustice and discrimination against women.
This injustice and
discrimination has happened not only in Indonesia, but also in other countries,
and also occured in many aspects such as religion, culture, politic, economic
until the level of the household. Discriminatory treatment and inequality can
cause harm and decrease the welfare of life for women whose rights are
A variety of ways are
underway to reduce Gender Inequality that causes social injustice. The effort
has done by individuals, groups, institutions, even by the state within the
local, national and international scope. These efforts are directed to,
Ensuring Equality of Rights, Proactive Policy Developers Addressing Gender
Disparities, and Increasing Political Participation.
Choosing gender equality to
be a topic of discussion from other goals proclaimed by Suitabel Development
Goals (SGDs), because as a woman, I want to women’s rights be approved in every
aspect and all over the world. Because, in general, God created men and women
without distinction of rights that must be owned.
B. Formulation of The Problem
1. What is the definition
of Gender Equality?
2. What is Women’s
3. How is the
beginning of Gender Equality?
4. How is the development
of gender equality and issues of gender equality in Indonesia?
5. How are
Pancasila view of Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment?
C. Goals and Benefits
1. To know the
importance of Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment
2. To find out the
cause of the emergence of Gender Equality
3. To know the
development of Gender Equality and its problems in Indonesia
To know Gender
Equality and Women’s Empowerment from Pancasila’s perspective
To be a basic
implementation Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in Indonesia
Definition of Gender Equality
In understanding the study of gender equality, one
must first to know the difference between gender and sex. A lack of
understanding of Gender’s understanding becomes one of the causes in opposition
to accepting a gender analysis in a matter of social injustice.
According to Hugo (2007) “Sex is the difference
between women and men biologically since someone was born. Sex relates to the
male and female bodies, in which men produce sperm, while women produce egg
cells and are biologically capable of menstruating, pregnant and lactating.
Biological differences and biological functions of men and women cannot be exchanged
between the two. ”
And according to Fakih (2006) “Gender is a property
inherent in men and women who are constructed socially and culturally. Changes
in characteristics and traits that occur from time to time and from place to
place are called the gender concept.”1
From the description above can be concluded the
difference between sex with gender, gender more leaning towards one’s physical
while gender more skew in its behavior. Besides gender is an inherent status
while gender is the status obtained or gained. Gender is not biological, but
socially constructed. Since gender is not carried from birth, but learned
through socialization, gender can therefore change.
After knowing the differences between sex and
gender, next we can understand what is gender equality. Gender Equality is Gender
equality is achieved when women and men enjoy the same rights and opportunities
across all sectors of society, including economic participation and
decision-making, and when the different behaviors, aspirations and needs of
women and men are equally valued and favored.2
Gender equality is linked to gender justice. Gender
justice is a process and fair treatment of men and women. The realization of
gender equality and justice is characterized by the absence of discrimination
against both men and women. So that everybody has access, an opportunity to
participate, and control over development and obtain equitable and fair
benefits from the development.
Having access to the above has an interpretation that
everyone has an opportunity in obtaining fair and equal access to resources and
has the authority to make decisions on how to use and the results of those
resources. Having participation means having the opportunity to create or
participate in national development. While having control means having the
authority to make decisions on the use and results of resources. So everybody gets
the same benefits from development.
Definition of Women’s Empowerment
Women Empowerment refers to the creation of an
environment for women where they can make decisions of their own for their
personal benefits as well as for the society. Women Empowerment refers to
increasing and improving the social, economic, political and legal strength of
the women, to ensure equal-right to women, and to make them confident enough to
claim their rights, such as: freely live their life with a sense of self-worth,
respect and dignity, have complete control of their life, both within and
outside of their home and workplace, to make their own choices and decisions, have
equal rights to participate in social, religious and public activities,
social status in the society, have equal rights for social and economic
justice, get equal opportunity for education, and get equal employment opportunity
without any gender bias.
The beginning of Gender Equality
With these gender inequalities that resulting in the
abandonment of women’s human rights in the course of history, encouraging the
attention of intellectuals and activists about the domination of men against
women which promotes the existence of human rights violations based on gender.
In the spirit of liberation of that injustice,
finally, feminism becomes a warmly discussed discourse. The feminist movement
seeks to challenge the various forms of gender stereotypes that are widespread
in society as an effort to restore the dignity, freedom, and equality of women
as fully human beings. This spirit of feminism put forward the various
discourses of justice and egalitarianism in fighting for the welfare of life
and justice for women like this, which among others has opened the human
consciousness to feel concerned about the occurrence of violence against women.
There are at least three schools of Feminism that
are often the world’s attention because of their views and opinions,
feminism, which assumes that all human beings are created in balance and in
harmony, should avoid oppression between each other and require that women be
fully integrated into all roles included in the public domain
seeking to remove class structures in society by sex. The feminists in this
school view that capitalism should be abolished because according to them the
nature and function of women’s work under capitalism is the undermining of
sued all institutions which is considered harmful to women. Even among radical
feminists there demands not only equal rights with men but also the equality of
sexual satisfaction, thus justifying the lesbian. For the radical feminist movement, resolutions take
place in every woman who has taken action to change their own lifestyle,
experience, and relationship with men.4
The Development and Gender Equality in Indonesia
Gender differences can sometimes lead to injustice
against men and especially women. Gender inequality can manifest in various
forms of injustice, namely:
Marginalization of Women
of women (removal or impoverishment) often occurs in the surrounding
environment. It appears that many women workers are marginalized and become
poor due to development programs such as women are marginalized from various
types of agricultural and industrial activities that require more skills that
are more commonly owned by men. With this, a lot of men who think that women
only have duties around the house only.
has the meaning that the belief that one sex is considered more important than
the other sex. There has always been a view that places the status and role of
women lower than men. One example is that women are considered weak creatures,
so often men seem to be more powerful. Sometimes men think that the scope of
women’s work is only around the house. With such a view, then it is just as
well as not giving women to appreciate their thoughts outside the home.
One of the
stereotypes that develop based on gender, which occurs against one sex,
(female). This results in discrimination and injustice that disadvantages
women. For example, the view of women whose duties and functions only carry out
work related to domestic work. This not only happens within the household but
also occurs in the workplace and community, even at the government and state
Standards of values ??for the behavior of women and
men are different, but they are judgmental and harmful to women. Women’s label
as “housewives” is disadvantageous, if they are active in “men’s
activities” such as politics, business or bureaucrats. While the male label
as the main breadwinner resulted in anything that produced by women regarded as
a sideline or additionally and tended not to be taken into account.
Gender equality in Indonesia is still within the
context of the protection of labor rights and equal pay, it seems that we need
to look back at the role of the government towards foreign exchange earners,
especially women. They are the party that has the smallest votes to be heard by
the government or law enforcement because its position does not seem to have
the same right to be fully protected by the state.
We should see another country, for example, Iceland
who becomes the first country to legalize equal pay between men and women. Under
the new rules, companies and government agencies employing at least 25 people
will have to obtain government certification of their equal-pay policies.
According to Dagny Osk Aradottir Pind, a board
member of the Icelandic Women’s Rights Association (2018) “The legislation
is basically a mechanism that companies and organisations evaluate every job that’s being done, and then
they get a certification after they confirm the process if they are paying men
and women equally,” said Dagny Osk Aradottir Pind, a board member of the
Icelandic Women’s Rights Association. It’s a mechanism to ensure women and men
are being paid equally. We have had legislation saying that pay should be equal
for men and women for decades now but we still have a pay gap.”5
Although in Indonesia has experienced enough Gender
Equality developments such as the number of career women, and women who
received education to bachelor until doctor, but compare with other countries,
Indonesia’s gender equality development still left behind.
Gender Equality from Pancasila Perspective
Subconscious acceptance of Pancasila from the society
can be seen from the reaction of society to the case of formalization efforts
of Islam in Indonesia. Pancasila is used for arguments against Islamic
regulations but the issue of discrimination against women is rarely used as a
basis for rejection. Some Pancasila ideologists have even stated that Pancasila
has no Pancasila link with gender issues. While Sukarno, the initiator of
Pancasila, explicitly integrates the perspective of gender equality into the
description of Pancasila.
While giving a public lecture about Pancasila on
July 22, 1958, at the State Palace, according to Soekarno (1958) “The issue of
women and men was mainly extracted from sila
2 of Pancasila ‘Peri kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab’. Nevertheless, every
time Sukarno reminds that the precepts in Pancasila are imbued with each other,
in fact, the issue of women is in every sila
. Clearly, in the political system of representative democracy (sila 4) or
religious life (Sila 1) the issue of gender equality animates the two precepts.”
MPR RI’s member, Eva Kusuma Sundari also socialized
the four pillars with the theme of Pancasila and gender equality in Surabaya.
Eva said that Pancasila’s position as an ideology should be able to show its
position on crucial issues. Includes gender issues. 6
Two sources that can be used as a reference are
Sarinah Book written on 1947 and public lecture Seokarno on Pancasila Basic
State in the State Palace. Speech of Seokarno on July 22, 1958 it contents
dissect the meaning of the second precepts, namely Perikemanusiaan yang Adil
From the book Sarinah, Soekarno likens the position
of women and men like two wings from a bird. Both must be strong so that the
bird can fly high. Women’s inhibitors to be equal are mentioned to be rooted in
That is the system of feudalism and the division of
labor system (division of labor) world that is not fair for the interests of
neo-colonialism. Men and women must work together to undermine the two unjust
Gender equality is also described in a public lecture
at the State Palace, by unraveling the symbols of the country. Bendera Merah Putih is not just a brave
and sacred meaning. But it also means women and men.
Red links with sun and moon whose role is important
for agrarian society. The red sun represents the female blood. While the white
of the moon is the color of male’s semen.
The symbol of gender equality also exists in Garuda
Pancasila, especially the second precepts, round and square chains are
continuous and not broken.
1 Fakih, M (2006) Analisis Gender & Transformasi Sosial.
Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar Offset
2 Eurostat (n.d) What is Gender Equality?
Retrieved from http://www.genderequality.ie/en/GE/Pages/WhatisGE
3 Tong, Rosemarie (1989) Feminist Thought: Westview Press
L. & Wise, S. (1983) Breaking Out:
Feminist Consciousness and Feminist Research: Routledge & Kegan Paul
5 Al-Jazera (2018) Iceland Becomes First Country
to Legalise Equal Pay Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/01/iceland-country-legalise-equal-pay-180101150054329.htmlhttp://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/01/iceland-country-legalise-equal-pay-180101150054329.html
6 Jurnal Indonesia (2016) Pancasila
dan Kesetaraan Gender Retrieved from
7 Soekarno (1947) Sarinah: Kewajiban Wanita Dalam Perjuangan Republik Indonesia,
Toko Gunung Agung