capstone and, once intake by an organism, remains

capstone project

Literature Review

Praveen challagulla(c0691080)
deepak joseph(c0687358)
mareena mathew(c0686034)

 

 

HEAVY
METALS

Heavy metals are regular parts of the
earth’s outside. They can’t be destroyed or degraded. With a little degree they
enter human body by means of food, drinking water and air. As follow elements,
a portion of  heavy metals like Copper,
selenium, zinc are needed for the digestion system of the human body. However,
at higher focuses they lead to poisoning. Substantial metal poisoning might
result, for instance, starting with drinking-water tainting (e .g Lead pipes),
secondary encompassing air fixations close emanation sources, or through food chains.
Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate.

1.     
Antimony-
Antimony trioxide is a flame retardant. It can also be found in batteries,
pigments, and ceramics and glass. High levels of antimony exposure for short
periods of time causes illness like nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

2.     
Cadmium-
Cadmium acquires its toxicological properties from its chemical similarity to
zinc an essential micronutrient for plants, animals and humans. It is bio-persistent
and, once intake by an organism, remains inside the organism for many years .But
it is eventually excreted. The most significant use of cadmium is in
nickel/cadmium batteries, as rechargeable exhibiting high output.

3.     
Chromium-
Traces of chromium is seen in metal alloys and pigments for paints, cement, paper
and rubber. Exposure in low level can irritate the skin . Long-term exposure
can cause damage to kidney and liver . Chromium often accumulates in aquatic
animals.

4.     
Copper-Copper
is an essential element needed for human life. Copper high doses  can cause anemia, liver and kidney damage, and
irritation to stomach and intestine. Copper usually occurs in drinking water
from copper pipes.

5.     
Lead-Lead
exposure in human beings can result in biological effects. It has negative
effect on developing foetus and infants are more sensitive than the adults Lead
intake can cause problems in the synthesis of haemoglobin and adverse effects
on the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, joints and also the reproductive
system. Exposure to lead can cause acute or chronic damage to the nervous
system.

6.     
Mercury
– It is a toxic substance. It does not occur naturally in living organisms.
Inorganic mercury poisoning is associated with tremors, gingivitis and/or minor
psychological changes along with spontaneous abortion and congenital
malformation.

7.     
Nickel-Nickel
in small are needed by the human body to produce red blood cells. Excess  amounts of lead can become mildly toxic. Long-term
exposure can cause decreased body weight, heart and liver damage, and skin
irritation.

8.     
Selenium
– It is needed by humans and other animals in mild amounts. Larger amounts can
cause damage to the nervous system, fatigue, and irritability. It accumulates
in living tissue resulting in high selenium content in fish and other organisms
. Overexposure ,      which in turn cause greater health problems in
humans. These effects include hair and fingernail loss, damage to kidney and
liver tissue, damage to circulatory tissue, and greater damage to the nervous
system.

9.     
Arsenic-  Naturally occurring sources of human exposure
include volcanic ash, weathering of minerals and ores, and mineralized
groundwater. It is also found in food, water, soil, and air. Arsenic
is absorbed by all plants and more accumulated in leafy vegetables, rice, apple
and grape juice, and seafood. Inhalation of atmospheric gases and dusts
also cause arsenic exposure.

10.Barium- It is
commonly used in medical field for X-rays. Barium is also found in the water
and food supply, all water or acid soluble barium are considered poisonous. Symptoms
associated with barium poisoning vary depending on the amount you are currently
exposed.

Heavy Metals

Regulatory Status(ppm)

Arsenic

5

Barium

100

Cadmium

1

Chromium

5

Lead

5

Selenium

1

Mercury

0.2

Silver

5

Copper

1.3

 

References

 

·        
Aggrawal,
A. Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. New Dehli: Avichal Publishing
Company.

 

·        
Balasubramanian,
R; He, J; Wang, LK (2009). “Control, Management, and Treatment of Metal
Emissions from Motor Vehicles”. In Shammas, LK; Wang, JP; Chen, Y; et al.
Heavy Metals in the Environment. CRC Press. pp. 475–490. ISBN 1420073168.

 

·        
Baldwin
DR, Marshall WJ (1999). “Heavy metal poisoning and its laboratory
investigation”. Ann Clin Biochem. 36 (3): 267–300.
doi:10.1177/000456329903600301. PMID 10376071.

 

·        
Bánfalvi,
G (2011). “Heavy Metals, Trace Elements and their Cellular Effects”.
In Bánfalvi, G. Cellular Effects of Heavy Metals. Springer. pp. 3–28.