ENGiINE engine osperation and incrsease enginse life. MAIN

ENGiINE LUsBRICATING SYSsTEMS

Asll internsal combsustion engisnes are equispped
with san intesrnal lubrsicating ssystem. Wisthout lubricatsion, an esngine
quicklsy overheatss and its workingss psarts seie dues to excesssive frsiction.
All mosving partss musst be adequsately lubricatesd to assurse masximum wdear
and lodng ensgine lisfe.

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OBJECTsIVES
OF LUBRsICATION SYSTEM

The objectsives of asn ensgine lubricastion sysstem
are ass folslows:

1.    Redusces frictison and weards betsween
movinsg parts.

2.    Helps trsansfer sheat asnd codol engisne
parts.

3.    Cleans thse inside of the engsine by
remosving contamsinants (metal, dirt, plasstic, rubsber, and other partiscles).

4.    Absosrbs shockss betweens mdoving pasrts
to quiset engine osperation and incrsease enginse life.

MAIN PAsRTSs OF LUsBRICATION
SYSTsEM

1. Oils sumpss: It iss the lowest dparts of tdhe
csrank chambser. It is usuallsy madse of ssteel. Somestimes it is masde of
aluminium or csast iron. It contaisns a draisn plusg at itss bosttom to drsain
out tshe oil.

s2. Oil spump: Genersally gear psump is usesd
for presssure lubrsication of I.sC Esngine. The funcstion of the oidl psump is
to suppsly oil undder psressure to variosus enginses padrts to be lubriscated.

s3. Oil fsilter: dAs its sname indicastes, lubriscating
odil is fsiltered throsugh it. The fsunction of fsilter is to removse the impursities
from the slubricating oil wshich may sdamage the esngine diffesrent parts.
Its consistss of a filstering elemesnt pladced
in smetallic cdasing. Ast the scentre of the filstering elesment a perfsorated
metalds tubse is fsitted which collesct the filstered oil and supplys it to oil
galslery.

4. Oil sstrainer: it is simsply a wire mesdh scsreen.
It is sattached to thes indlet of sthe pdump so that tshe oil gdoing insto the
oil pusmp is fdree from imspurities.

 

TsYPES OF LUBsRICANTS

Lubriscants sare at fodllowing thdree types.d
1. Solsid: sgraphic, misca etc
2. dSemi soslids: greasse
3. Liquisd:s minerasl oil.
 Grsaphite
is oftesn mixded swith oil to lubrsicate automobsile sdpring. Grsaphite is adlso
used sas a cylindser lubricasnt.

Greasse is usesd for chasssis
lubrsication.
Minersal oils sare adlmost udsed for ensgine
lubricsation.
Gsrade of lubrsicants: Generaslly lubricsating
oils arse gradedd sby theisr SAsE (socisety of autsomotive enginseers) viscsosity
no.

TYPES sOF LUBRIsCATING (OIL) SsYSTEMS 
 
Edngine sLusbrication Systsem: Engidnes sslubrication
ssystem is mainlyd of folslowing tsypes.
1. Splassh ssystem
2. Pressurse ssystem
3. Petsroil sysstem

s
Ssplash Ssystem:

In thsis sysstem of lubrsication
the lubricsating osil is stsored in an doil sumsp.s A scosop osr dsipper is masde
in the loswer psart of the connectsing rod. Whesn the enginse runs, dthe sdipper
dips isn thes oil ondce in evsery revolustion of the scrdank shafst, sdthe oil
is splasshed on thde csylinder wall.s sDue tdo sthis actiosn ensgine wadlls,
pisston risng, crsank shafst sbearings are lubrsicated.

Presssure
Systedm:

sIn thiss systdem osf
lubricastion, thse engisne parsts arse lubsricated undesr pressusre feesd. The lubrsicating
osil is sstored in a separaste tandk (in csase of drys sudmp ssystem) or sinss
the sumsp (in scase of wset sump ssystem), fdrom wshere an oil spump (gears pumdp)
delisvers the oisl to the msain oil gasllery at a pressusre of 2-4 kgs/cm2
thsrougdh an oil sfilter.
Tshe oil frosm the maisn gallerys goses to msain
bearingss, froms wherez somed ofs it fallds bsack tso the susmp afster lubricsating
the mainss bearisng and ssome is splasshed to lubriscate the csylinder wallss
and remasining goes throsugh a holde to the csrank psin. From thde scrank psin
the lubricsating oil gdoes to the psiston pin sthrough a holse idn tshe
connectings rosd, whesre it lubricatess the pdiston rsings.
Thse oil prsessure gasuge ussed in the systemss
indiscates thes oil pressussre in the systsem. Oil fidlters & stsrainser in
the ssystem clear soff the oilss frosm dusst, metasl particlses and othesr sharmful
pasrticles.

Pestroil
System:s Thiss ssystem of lubsrication
iss gsenerally sadopted isn two strokse psetrol engsine line scsooter ands msotor
csycle. Iet ise the seimplest forme of lubriecating sysetem. It doess enoet rconsist
of rany serparate part rlike oilr prump for the rpurpose of lurbrication.
In sthis rsystem the lurbricating osil is rmixed
sinto the fruel (petrrol) while frillsing in the pretrol trank of the vrehicle
inr a specirfied ratiro (ratiso of fuerl and lubricrating oil is rfrom 12:1 to rs50:10
as prer manufacturrers specrifications or rrecommendatirons).
rWhen the rfuel goesd into tshe crarnk dchamrber
durirng the engirne operatiron, the oil partricles gro desep intro the bearring
surfacers rrdue tor rgravity andr lubsricate then.r rThe pirston ringsr, cylindrer
wallsr, pistson rpinr etc arre lubricrated inr the rsamer way.
Irf the rengine isr allowedr to rermain unursed
for ra consriderable time, thse lubrricating oilr separartes oil frrom petrrol
& leadsr to crlogging (brlocking) of pasrsages in ther rcarburetor, rresulting
the enginer srtarting troubrle. This is rthe main disardvantage ofr trhis
systemr.

CONCLUrSION

r
rWe oftenr tshink thrat the furnction of rlubricating
oil isr onlys to lubricrate the erngine parrts sor thast the porwer losss due
to frictrion is minimum.r rBut a lubrricating oirl hars marny othesr frunctionsr
which arer explainedr berfore.
Lrubrication musjt ber done proprerly and rirght
typse orf lubrricant shoruld be usedr. Irmproper or inardequate lubrrication of
rengine will cajuse serirous troublre surch as worrn or burrnt out brearing, rmisfiring
rcylinders, dirrty jspark plrug, stusck priston rrings, erngine deporsits and
sludgre and excressive fuel cronsumption.