Humans, human experience, communicate and understand reality’. So

Humans, what make us the most intellectual species on
planet Earth? Is it just because of our morphological characteristics and
highly developed neural network or also because of our culture? Yes, some truth
is behind our body geometry but a greater role is also played by the norms,
values and ideas passed on to us by our fore fathers. These complex integrated
pattern of learning that is passed on just like genes from earlier civilization
to today’s generation, is defined as culture. Human societies consists of social
behaviours and norms which is known as culture




People have different ideologies on the true definition of
it but in every language it is somehow similar to its fundamental values. A
great soviet era Psychologist named Lev Vygotsky quotes, ‘Language and Culture
are the frameworks through which human experience, communicate and understand
reality’. So a greater portray on its importance can be derived from his
message. And sociologist Georg
Simmel (1858–1918), referred to culture as ‘the cultivation of
individuals through the agency of external forms which have been objectified in
the course of history.’ Therefore,
culture in the sociological field can be characterized as the mind sets, the
methods for acting, and the material objects that together shape a people’s

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Elements that are common to all cultures are
called Cultural Universals. These do not change over time but the way they are
expressed do change with time. Some examples are language, food, music, and
clothes. Cultural Universals meet basic human needs. Culture can be expressed
materially (physical, tangible objects) and non-materially (customs, beliefs,
philosophies). Both are equally important in defining and continuing a culture.


Humans have been descending with the
expansion of new thoughts and items from generation to generation. This dynamic
procedure of society expands culture with refreshment which creates some new
and different culture in every generation. For its continuity and survival,
society struggles as it adjusts according to environmental situation of its
surrounding. Societies and cultures are going through changes. As long as people
keep on inventing something that did not exist before, discover new things and
also keep on spreading cultural qualities from one group to another, the changes
will keep on continuing.


Language, norms and values are important parts
to culture which cannot be separated from one another. They always coexist.

Language is the foundation of every culture.
 It consists of word meanings and
symbols which not only describes a culture but shapes it as well. Language
includes speech (spoken sounds), written characters (letters), numerals,
symbols (& % J), and gestures (waving hello).


standards of behaviour maintained by society



Unavoidably culture changes, and is changed by
a handful number of factors such as, different interactions with variety of groups
as well as individuals, technology, mass media and other physical factors.






Norms are built up measures
or standards of behaviour kept up by society. People have to meet up certain
standards or follow certain rules to be a part of a particular society.

Formal norms are composed and have particular outcomes
for clinging to them or breaking them. Casual or informal norms are not
composed but rather are understood; outcomes come as praise or criticism. Norms that are
important to society’s welfare are called Mores. These behavioural standards generally
carry some moral consequence, are difficult to change, and result in severe punishment
if violated or dishonoured. Incest, child abuse and multiple marriage partners
are some of the examples. On the other hand norms that govern daily behaviour
without much concern for society’s welfare are called Folkways. These behavioural
standards generally do not carry a moral implication and change easily.
(Examples are church dress, business attire, helping a stranger.) We are more
likely to formalize mores than folkways.


Values are the concept of what is ‘great’,
legitimate, attractive, what is determined to be ‘awful’, despicable, and
unfortunate inside a culture. We value particular substantial things
(people, objects, wealth) and general things (health, power, status). A culture
demonstrates its value of a specific thing by the lengths it goes to protect
it. The most commonly devalued things in our culture are women, children, Judeo
Christian beliefs, and education.