In such as rebel forces, terrorist organisations and

In
the modern era of the 21st century, we still see remnants of what
went on during yesteryear wars; That is, the mass destruction of the human
race, paramount violations of human rights and boiling hatred amongst nations
that have led to dire consequences worldwide. Various kinds of CWs ranging from
least toxic to extremely lethal ones have been employed over the past few years
as a result of the ongoing tension around the world. Iran has signed several
agreements concerning CWs including the Biological Weapons Convention, the
Chemical Weapons Convention, and the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) since the
Iran-Iraq war which affected millions of civilians and so, Supreme Leader of Iran
Ayatollah Ali Khamenei banned the production and usage of these weapons on
grounds of national security and religious laws.

Modern
developments in nuclear science have had adverse effects as those such as rebel
forces, terrorist organisations and out of state countries take advantage of
this knowledge and convert it into weapons of mass destruction. Although no
rules can be placed against using nuclear energy and chemicals for educational
and research purposes, production of any sort of lethal weapon may be
regulated. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has captured
98 percent of the world’s attention, as well as Iran’s, against weapon production.
OPCW strives to discontinue chemical weapons programs through stricter legal authority
and reinforcement of existing pacts on banning production of CWs, monitoring
nuclear consumption, stricter controls over delivery of weapons on the ground
and in the air and encouraging countries to be more transparent about their
nuclear activities.

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The
OPCW supports and the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) through providing
technical assistance to parties struggling to eradicate their nuclear
stockpiles, The OPCW Network of Legal Experts are sent out to give reports on the
status of implementation in their home country, including problems encountered and
assistance required and The National Legislation Implementation Kit which need
to provide states parties with a clear guide for national implementation of the
CWC. The OPCW receives ongoing support and of other organisations such as the Association
of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), African Union (AU), European Union (EU) and
the Pacific Islands Forum.

Countries
must develop stern programs to improve border and customs controls to prevent
and detect the movement of terrorists and the illegal exchange in inter alia, small
arms and light weapons, conventional ammunition and explosives, and nuclear,
chemical, biological or radiological weapons and materials. Rulers must
ameliorate regulation of home country’s imports and exports to catch
discrepancies and discourage the country’s links to terrorist organisations or
countries where nuclear weapons are active.

In
response to Iran’s persistent illicit nuclear programs, the USA and other
countries imposed sanctions to censure Iran and block its ongoing prohibited
nuclear activities, as well as to persuade Tehran to address the world’s
concerns about its nuclear program. Acting both through the UNSCR and regional
or national authorities, the United States, the member states of the, Japan, Norway,
European Union, Canada, Australia, Switzerland, the Republic of Korea, and
others have put together a strong, inter-locking matrix of sanctions measures
related to Iran’s nuclear, missile, energy, shipping, transportation, and
financial sectors.

Topic 2: Limiting arm trade

The
leniency and ease of weapons flowing in and out of countries nowadays has fuelled
many a terrorist organisation and acts almost as a gateway to terror and
destruction. Even today, in 2018, in countries such as the USA, it is easier to
purchase a gun than to be eligible to obtain birth control. Iran has portrayed
quite a controversial image concerning arms trade in recent years as it blocked
adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) during the conference in 2013. Iran’s
UN ambassador, Mohammad Khazaee says that Iran voted “no” because the treaty
did not include the banning or transfer of conventional arms to “aggressors”
and “foreign occupiers”. As a consequence of the conventional arms embargo
levied in 2010, Iran has recorded a prominent decrease in transfers of conventional
weapons. Even post the convention, however, because of the country’s ever-growing
international separation from the nuclear dossier, leading weapons exporters
were hesitant to engage in arms deals with Iran.

Since
2006, the widening arms embargo meant that Iran was unable to openly procure
what it needs. Therefore Iran came depended heavily on illicit methods. In this
regard, for as long as Iran remains locked by the UN Security Council (UNSC)
arms embargo, the ATT would suspend Iran as it supports and complements other
states’ adherence to those embargos. The ATT may also help Iran as member
states have the right to request legislative assistance, such as model
legislation, or institutional capacity-building assistance to build effective
programs. Concerning exports, Iran sells rockets including small arms
and light weapons, which are all conventional arms recognised by the Arms Trade
Treaty.

Various
news reports suggest both Iran and Syria may have delivered these small arms to
terrorist organisations like Hezbollah and Hamas. Moreover, Russia’s arms
relationship with Iran only complicates efforts to impose punitive sanctions
against Tehran for its illicit production and usage of nuclear weapons. As a
consequence, In 2006, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1696 and
imposed sanctions after Iran refused to stop its uranium enrichment program The
UN as well as other international organisations have rigorously resorted to tough
sanctions on nations that are not in line with the ATT’s guidelines.

As
Iran receives scrutiny from security organisations and the rising concerns of neighbouring
countries, it is doing very little in terms of addressing matters of supplying
arms to terrorist organisations. In fact, Iran is targeted by powerful rebel
groups such as ISIS ever since its emergence in 2014 due to the Shia-Sunni
conflict as Iran’s national religion and authority is based on Shia Islam. Iran’s
extensive and multi-layered counterterrorism program was successful in
preventing an attack within Iran’s borders and against Iranian civilians until
recently, in June of 2017, the Islamic State was successful in attacking Iranian
soil, resulting in 17 dead and some 50 injured.

It is
safe to say that Iran is inadvertently caught in the crossfires during the
current heated violence around the world. However, Iran must become more transparent
when it comes to dealing in arms trade with terrorist organisations and take
the UN’s sanctions seriously. Over the years, sanctions have taken a serious
toll on Iran’s economy and people. To-date, Iran sanctions are the toughest the
world community has imposed on any country. Iran must unequivocally abandon its
backing of international terrorism if it ever wants to rejoin the world
community.