Intellectual lending for educational purposes, criticism and news

Intellectual property is a motive
for innovation that proved its importance in the past two decades. While many
countries do not care for or give the needed attention to this topic, the United
Kingdom realizes that all creators crave a satisficing set of laws which ensures
and secures their rights, and by providing them with these right and participating
in many organizations that addresses this issue like WIPO, signing agreements
such as the Bern Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic
Works, the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, the
Universal Copyright Convention, the Geneva Phonograms Convention, and the
Patent Cooperation Treaty and assigning the intellectual property office (IPO)  which is a government body responsible for all
intellectual property rights ,the rate of development and evolution  of the country became noticeably increasing.

  Intellectual
property consists of two parts (The Two Branches of Intellectual Property,
2016), namely: copyrights, which are legal rights created by the law of a
country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its
use and distribution. In the UK a balance between the rights of the creators
and the audience is established as all authors, writers, music performers,
artists, etc. are granted their rights as their work is owned by them for up to
70 years,(even if they’re unknown), but there are some cases where these
creations can be used, like private and research study purposes, performance,
copies or lending for educational purposes, criticism and news reporting or incidental
inclusion; Thereby excluding the chance of depriving knowledge or art from
reaching people.

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The second branch is industrial
property which includes include industrial designs, patents for inventions,
trademarks, layout-designs of integrated circuits, commercial names,
designations, geographical indications and its protection against unfair competition.
The United Kingdom has not ignored this branch either as it has robust real
property laws stemming from legislation including the Law of Property Act 1925,
which is an act to consolidate the enactments relating to Conveyancing and the
Law of Property in England and Wales. The Settled Land Act 1925,which is used
by a property owner who wants to ensure that provision of future generations of
his family. The Land Charges Act 1972, a UK Act of Parliament that updates the
system for registering charges on unregistered land in England and Wales. It
repealed and updated parts of the Land Charges Act 1925 and other legislation
affecting real property, and many more with the most recent being the Land
Registration Act 2002. The UK updates and revises all those acts and laws
regularly for a guaranteed satisfaction by its citizens, which indeed is shown
till our present day.

In recent years, the Act of Knowledge
(A2K) which is a movement defined as a loose collection of civil society
groups, governments, and individuals converging on the idea that access to
knowledge should be linked to fundamental principles of justice, freedom, and
economic development emerged to the scene. The highlight of this movement was The
Geneva Declaration on the Future of the World Intellectual Property
Organization, document signed in 2004 by a number of non-profit organizations,
scientists, academics and other individuals urging the World Intellectual
Property Organization (WIPO) to focus on the needs of developing countries with
respect to intellectual property legislation. The authors and signatories
believed that “the world is facing a crisis in the governance of knowledge,
technology, and culture”, and blamed his crisis on the unequal access to vital
medicines and education, anticompetitive
economic practices, concentration of ownership, technological measures such as
digital rights management (DRM), the fair compensation of authors and creators,
and the locking up of the public domain by private interests. This resulted in the
WIPO setting the development agenda in 2009, which the UK embraced. And finally
in 2013, the United Nation Human Rights Council resolution number A/HRC/23/L.20
was accepted emphasizing on the “promotion and protection of all human rights, civil,
political, economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to
development”.