Introduction of 65 to 70 years old. It’s

 Introduction

The
definition of cancer starts when the cells in the body begin to grow out of
control. Prostate cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells in the Prostate.  Prostate cancer was not identified
specifically until 1853. The first known removal of the entire gland (radical
perineal prostatectomy) was performed in 1904 by Hugh H. Young at Johns Hopkins
Hospital. 

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The
prostate is a gland that produces seminal fluid found only in males. Prostate
cancer is the most common cancer in men only 2nd behind lung cancer.
One in Seven men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime.
There are many factors that impact the prognosis of prostate cancer. One is
age. Prostate cancer is very rare in men under the age of 50; Men do not start
their basic screening until after 50 years old. Prostate cancer develops mainly
in older men. About six cases in ten are diagnosed in men age 65 or older, and
its rare before age 40. The average age at the time of diagnosis is between the
ages of 65 to 70 years old. It’s the third leading cause of cancer death in
American men, behind lung cancer and Colorectal cancer. Prostate cancer is one
of the biggest threats to men’s health, and is considered one of the most
common cancers among males worldwide.

                                                                Symptoms

Be aware there may be no symptoms present with
prostate cancer. Many men with prostate cancer often have no symptoms at all.
The most important thing is to understand the risks associated with prostate
cancer. It is a good idea to get checked on a regular basis, whether you have
symptoms or not. The American Cancer Society encourages men 45 years and older
to get checked annually. 

How to recognize prostate cancer symptoms can be a
challenge because they can mimic other symptoms from diseases like diabetes,
urinary tract infection and various kidney diseases. The most important thing
is to identify the symptoms as early as possible and document any symptoms that
are noticed right away. The most important thing is to pay attention to the
urination cycles. If they change dramatically, it could be a symptom of
prostate cancer. Be aware of burning when you urinate. Look for blood in your
urine or a pink/red urine tint. Due to the enlarging mass from prostate cancer,
new blood vessels may form and many others may get injured. Blood in urine is
known as hematuria. It’s important for men to pay attention to painful
ejaculations (orgasm). It is well documented that there may be an association
of prostate cancer with prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate from
infection). I cover this in more detail and how it can complicate diagnosing
prostate cancer.

                                                     Diagnosis

There
have been controversies with how often men should be screened for Prostate cancer.
The most common forms of prostate cancer screening are digital rectal exams
(DRE) and Prostate-specific antigen test (PSA). During a DRE, your doctor dons
his gloves. He lubricates his index finger and inserts it into the rectum to
examine the prostate. This is a way for the doctor to find any abnormalities in
the texture, shape or size of the gland. If any abnormalities are found, than
further tests are needed.

 

The
prostate specific antigen test (PSA). This when a blood sample is drawn from a
vein in your arm and analyzed for PSA, a substance that is naturally produced
by your prostate gland. It’s not uncommon for a small not a PSA to be in that
your bloodstream. However, if a higher than normal level is found, it may
indicate prostate infection, inflammation, enlargement or cancer. This is where
the controversy has been debated. There have been cases where elevated PSA in
the bloodstream was present because of inflammation or infection in the
prostate; however, there was no cancer in the prostate itself. A common
condition of inflammation (prostatitis) which affects the prostate is Benign
Enlargement Of The Prostate Gland. Unfortunately, this is why there have been many
cases of false prostate cancer diagnoses. Physicians were relying on the PSA
test alone. This is where further tests are recommended to determine whether a
man has prostate cancer. Ultrasound is done if other tests have raise concerns.
This is done by a small probe, about the size and shape of a cigar. It’s
inserted into the rectum. The probe uses sound waves to create a picture of
your prostate gland. Another way to effectively diagnose prostate cancer is
collecting a sample of prostate tissue. Prostate biopsy is often done by using
a needle that is inserted into the prostate to collect tissue. The tissue
sample is analyzed by the lab to determine whether cancer cells are
present. This is the most effective way of diagnosing prostate cancer.

                
                                     Treatment

The
type of treatment that is most appropriate really depends upon the stage of
growth of the tumor itself. Treatment is also determined by the age and the
health of the individual that is affected by prostate cancer.

There
are currently five main treatment methods for prostate cancer. Watchful
waiting,  Brachytherapy, Surgery, Hormone therapy, and Chemotherapy.
Brachytherapy Is the preferred noninvasive method to treating small and
moderate sized (localized) prostate cancer. Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy
where a sealed radiation source is place inside or next to the area requiring
the treatment. This process Is done by seed implantation. Multiple radioactive
pellets, or “seeds,” Are about the size of a grain of wheat. These pellets are
placed directly into the prostate. Brachytherapy, in other words is (internal
radiation).

Watchful
waiting or expectant therapy is recommended for older men who have other health
problems.  Men age of 76 and older can suffer negative complications from
treatments like surgery and radiation by itself. The risks of negative side
effects from treatment are substantially higher. Older men in this particular
age bracket are encouraged to go with this particular therapy as the prostate
cancer is very slow growing at this particular time. 

Chemotherapy
has not been proven to be an effective treatment for prostate cancer.
Chemotherapy is used when cancer is no longer localized in a particular area
and has spread into other areas of the body. This is where treatment has to be
focused on the systemic level ( meaning the entire body) and not on the
localized prostate cancer level.

Hormone
therapy relies on a variety of procedures to reduce testosterone levels, a
hormone which stimulates tumor growth. This particular therapy is used in the
early stages of prostate cancer. It is still not as effective as Brachytherapy
or watchful waiting.There’s currently no cure for advanced prostate cancer once
it has spread to the bone. 

In
conclusion, prostate cancer develops primarily in men over 50. It is the most
common type of cancer in men worldwide. It is the second leading cause of
cancer death and US men after long cancer. More than 80% of men will develop
prostate cancer by the age of 80. however, in the majority of cases, it will be
slow growing and harmless. According to the American Cancer Society, the 10 to
15 year relative survival rate in men is 98% after appropriate treatment is
completed.