Musculoskeletal are widely being used in almost every

Musculoskeletal Disorders in IT Industry of PakistanMSDS 17018MSDS 17029MSDS 17031MSDS 17056Information Technology University, LahoreJanuary 2018AbstractWith the recent advancements in technology, the world is becoming more and more dependent on computers every day, causing an increase in computer-based jobs. According to a survey, Pakistan accommodates 4th largest software industry in the world. Because of this, ‘Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) are becoming prevalent in the IT Industry of Pakistan. The disorder is now spreading at an alarming rate as the workers spend hours sitting in front of the screen in the same posture, without being aware of the consequences. The disease is characterized by severe pain in the muscles and is basically described as a disorder of muscles, ligaments or spinal discs by the physicians.The aim of this scientific study was to identify its presence and impact in the IT industry and study the leading causes of this disorder. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among different software houses to record the information about worker’s physical health, the environment, office ergonomics and some medical information. This survey was then carefully analyzed by our team, studying every factor that could be a potential cause of WMSDs. After identifying the factors and testing them by using probabilistic approach of testing, multiple causes were concluded to be the major reasons behind Musculoskeletal Disorder.The survey also pointed out some disturbing facts which showed total lack of awareness among workers regarding this disease. Most of the workers being unaware of the sensitivity of this problem didn’t take any precautionary measures beforehand and hence ended up with severe body injuries. Our future goal is to properly carry out this study on a broader level and spread awareness among the workers about WMSDs which will in turn help to prevent it from spreading and thus save as many IT workers as possible.IntroductionThe world we are living in today is entirely dependent on computers. Every field, every occupation be it technical or non-technical requires knowledge and use of computers to some extent. As the time is passing by, these mini-devices are becoming extremely complex and powerful, making the humans rely more and more on them. These computers are widely being used in almost every industry but the most common use is found in the IT Industry as their major part of job is dependent on it.Every useful invention comes with a downside if a proper balance is not maintained. The workers who belong to the IT industry spend hours in front of computers without being aware that their physical health is being compromised. The extensive use of computers can cause multiple health problems including weak eyesight, stress, and can also cause serious muscle injuries. The prolonged use of computers makes the user sit in the same posture for hours which results in muscles, neck, and shoulder pains. It is, hence, very important to take small breaks during work to avoid muscular injuries.According to Canadian Center for Occupational Health, “Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a group of painful disorders of muscles, tendons, and nerves. Carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis, thoracic outlet syndrome, and tension neck syndrome are examples”. Any pain or disorder that directly affects the human musculoskeletal system comes under this disease. It is found very common among those workers who spend at least 8-10 hours of day in front of computer screens. The Canadian Center for Occupational Health stated many factors which could be a cause of this disorder, among which the most common were: type/nature of work, workplace design and worker’s physical health.The IT Industry of Pakistan has made huge advancements over the recent years and is growing bigger with every passing year. The purpose of our project was to observe these factors in IT workplaces of Pakistan to test if the factors mentioned above really have any impact on human health as well as identify new factors that could be the potential reason behind these disorders.For this, we conducted a survey in many workplaces equally focusing on all major IT departments e: g Software Development, Software Testing, Data Entry Operators, Administration, Marketing, Sales etc. These responses were then carefully analyzed and tested by using different probabilistic methodologies which will be discussed in the later sections.Before moving to the implementation part, there are same related projects which stressed on the same issue and used identical methodologies but on a different audience.Literature ReviewA lot of work has already been done on this issue, some of the most relevant works related to our project are mentioned below. These projects enabled us in mapping out our project strategy and clearly identify what we wanted to achieve through this project. Health Care System Changes and Reported Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Registered Nurses (By Jane Lipscomb, PhD, RN, Alison Trinkoff, ScD, RN, Barbara Brady, RN, MS, and Jeanne Geiger-Brown, PhD, RN)This research paper mainly focused on explaining the adverse effects on the health of nurses of Illinois and New York were caused due to some very significant changes in the healthcare industry of United States in the recent decades. The effects were primarily related to musculoskeletal discomfort, leading to some serious injuries among nurses. Changes such as inadequate staffing in hospitals, stressful workload, increase in job responsibilities were the major factors that caused the neck, shoulder and back pain among the nurses. The purpose of this article was to raise a concern so that improvements could be made in the nursing staff system for future prevention of such disorders. What Am I Sitting On? User Knowledge of their Chair Controls (By Alan Hedge Department of Design and Environmental Analysis, Cornell University)This project is related to modern ergonomics and is based on a study to test user knowledge and awareness to use to office equipment. The purpose of this study was to investigate user’s understanding of the adjustment features of their chair and how chair complexity relates to chair comfort and reports of musculoskeletal discomfort. When users were asked about the frequency of using their chair controls, a large majority indicated that they had either used the control once when they first sat on their chair or never at all. Stand Up and Move; Your Musculoskeletal Health Depends on ItThis project, again, primarily stressed on the office ergonomics and user’s physical activity to be the major causes of Musculoskeletal Disorder. They also presented an idea that the office workstations should not only focus on introducing quality ergonomics for its employees but also install fitness equipment in the office, e: g Cycling Machines, Treadmills etc. They should also make the employees use it daily for a small period of time to keep them energetic throughout the day. Increasing muscle activity is a very effective way to prevent Musculoskeletal Disorders and also increases the heart rate. They also suggested that the workers should also be encouraged to take short breaks during work to avoid sitting in the position for a long time. MethodA survey was carried out in different software houses among the employees. This survey was performed in both ways, by visiting the software houses and by reaching out people on social media. Our survey contained following sections:• User Demographics• System Information• Environment Information• Medical InformationDemographic attributes are the personal related information i.e. age, gender, type of work (freelancer or full-time job), time of job(day/night). These questions are directly related to our survey as we need to know what is the impact of age, gender, type of work and job timings on the health. System Information contains what type of system mostly people used and how much they use their system. This information is directly related to the person muscles usage for arms and eyes. Environment information contains questions related to their office environment i.e. chairs they use, table height, how often they take break etc. These questions having direct relation with the muscles of back, hands, and legs can help us deduce interesting results. Medical information contains the questions about their pain areas and severity of pain and they had any treatment or not. As already mentioned, our target population were people working at IT industry, so the main target for our survey were different IT industries of Pakistan. The survey was shared online on various social m. For online survey we had made our survey on google docs and spread it using social media with our friends and relatives. For survey filled manually, we visited different industries and request people working to fill the survey to by explaining the little bit about survey. And we had gathered approximately 120 instances. Based on our data, we decided to perform t testing because our data was small portion of whole population. We did not have the standard deviation and mean of the population. Also, we only wanted to describe the severity of pain with different attributes, so we will have slight idea that how Musculoskeletal Disorders varies from person to person on which conditions and which type of people have which disorder. And to do testing we have calculated the means of each attribute and standard deviation of each attribute. Following are the parameters of t hypothesis testing.·        Null hypothesis:  H0 : mu1-mu2 = 0.3·        Alternative hypothesis: mu1-mu2 > 0.3·        Confidence interval: 95 % i.e. alpha= 0.05·        Calculated t value: tcal =·        Critical region: tcal>ttab Following are the questions that we have selected from our survey to perform testing because these questions has the direct impact on disorders.Behavioural questions:These questions was to see behaviour in the population i.e. which population have more severity than others.Gender:We want to know how severity varies in gender so took the mean of severity in females and males. The sample mean of females was more than the sample mean of males. We simply calculated the mean of female by adding the severity point. Our 48% of data consist of female and rest data consist of male. And from our data it was clear that female mean on severity was greater than male.Age:We want to know how severity varies in age so we divided the data into two groups less than and greater than 35. Our majority of data lies less than 35 but we just want to know the impact of age on severity so took the mean of both less than 35 and greater than 35. And it was clear that the mean of people having age greater than 35 has high pain.Type of work:We want to know that if a person works whole day or do freelancing how the pain severity varies. So, we took the mean of severity against full time job doers and freelancer. And see that the mean severity of full time was higher than freelancer and this will take to us to another conclusion that a man who works more has higher level of pain.Impact questions:Following questions was to check the effects of environment on body and muscles and how it causes disorder.Type of system:This question was asked to check whether it is the type of system that also caused Musculoskeletal Disorders i.e. if the people use desktop, is there is any kind of disorder or not.Awareness questions:Following question was asked to check whether the people know if they do not get any treatment, things will get hard for them.Treatment:This question was asked by people so that people has awareness to visit a doctor or not. And the number of people who visited doctor are low which tell us that people are not aware of the fact that if they faced issues like that they should visit doctor. Also, the people who had visited the doctor, had severe pain.ResultsGender:We had performed T test on gender wise and we wanted to prove alternative hypothesis i.e. females are suffering from Musculoskeletal Disorder more than males and calculated the standard mean and variance of our samples that are female and male. And then perform hypothesis testing and the null hypothesis rejected so the alternative hypothesis accepted.Age:We had performed T test on age wise and we wanted to prove alternative hypothesis i.e. people with age greater than 35 have more severity than people with age less than 35 and calculated the standard mean and variance of our samples that are severity of pain in age greater than 35 and severity of pain in age less than 35. And then perform hypothesis testing and the null hypothesis rejected so the alternative hypothesis accepted.Type of work:We had performed T test on type of work and we wanted to prove alternative hypothesis i.e. people who work full time have more severity than people who works as freelancer and calculated the standard mean and variance of our samples that are people with work type full and people with work type freelancer. And then perform hypothesis testing and the null hypothesis rejected so the alternative hypothesis accepted.Type of system:We had performed T test on samples divided into two groups based on the system they use, and we wanted to prove null hypothesis i.e. whatever the system they use it has same effect on the body and calculated the standard mean and variance of our samples that are people who use laptop and people who use desktop. And then perform hypothesis testing and the null hypothesis accepted so the alternative hypothesis rejected.Treatment:We had performed T test on samples divided into two groups based on whether they have visited doctor or not, and we wanted to prove alternative hypothesis i.e. the people who has high severity level had visited doctor and calculated the standard mean and variance of our samples that are people who use laptop and people who use desktop. And then perform hypothesis testing and the null hypothesis was rejected so the alternative hypothesis accepted.DiscussionConclusions/RecommendationReferenceshttps://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/diseases/rmirsi.htmlhttp://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1064804615588853http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.94.8.1431http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1541931213601103http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2158244013491952TablesIllustrations/Figures