One including internalizing and externalizing behaviours compared to

One major problem that has constantly prevailed throughout history is the exposure children face towards abuse and neglect. Up until the late-1990’s forms of child abuse were considered part of growing up, however, scientists are now beginning to uncover the devastating results that emerge from experiencing parental abuse. With criminology being such as board subject, there are no two journals that deliberate the same topics, therefore individuals are then able to compare journals to further analyse the whole picture. For this research report, three areas will be examined to further understand the notion of children being exposed to violence, the subject include; symptoms of exposure to violence, consequences and solutions.

Violence is not only an adult problem, children are also very susceptible to its negative effects. In the case regarding the three journals that will be discussed in this report, one major viewpoint that is present in all three journals is the unending dispute around PTS symptoms that can affect short-term and long-term behavioural elements. In the first journal, Margolin and Gordis (2004) categorise PTS symptoms as a significances short-term effect that is caused by exposure to violence by their parents or other caregivers, which inevitably can impair social and behavioural influences (Margolin & Gordis, 2004). Common PTS symptoms may produce behaviour problems in children, both Yoon et al. (2016) and Margolin and Gordis (2004) found common symptoms such as difficulty falling or staying asleep, anger outbursts or irritability, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, or an exaggerated startle response (Yoon et al, 2016). Children are also more likely to suffer behavioural maladjustments, including internalizing and externalizing behaviours compared to children who have not experienced physical abuse. One of the major studies done within the three articles was conducted by Yoon et al. (2016) who surveyed 2,064 children that ranged from 8 to 15 years using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being in relationship to exposure during violent acts and home environment. To gather qualitative data, methods such as face-to-face interviews with children, current caregivers and teachers were conducted to provide a more comfortable atmosphere. Roughly 90.0% of children reported witnessing one or more incidents of violence and 81.7% of children reported experiencing one or more incidents of violent victimization. Out of the 2,064 children surveyed, only 7.9% exhibited significant levels of PTS symptoms, with 23.5% internalizing their behavior problems and 30.0% externalizing behaviour problems (Yoon, 2016). The overall study concluded that when a child experiences greater levels of violence, their symptoms were associated with greater PTS symptoms, and significant internalizing and externalizing behavioural problems. 

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