Describing aspects of development and explaining how they interrelate
The Children and Young People
(Scotland) Act 2014 states that anyone under the age of 18 years old
are defined as a child.
Development is the continuous progress
and change in a person as they become more independent and adapt to
life as they grow. There are five aspects of development which are
social, physical, emotional, cognitive and language (SPECL). As
babies get older they become more complex in their skills, thinking,
communication and movement etc.
SPECL is the aspects in which
practitioners measure a child’s development:
Social: The growth of
relationships and socialisation with others and learning to behave in
a social environment.
Physical: The physical growth of
a child in their weight, height and development of their fine and
gross motor skills
Emotional: The awareness of
their own emotions towards others and themselves and how they control
Cognitive: This is the way in
which children organise their thinking and their ability to reason
Language: The ability and
development of how children learn to communicate.
Holistic development views a child or
children as a whole person – physically, psychologically, socially,
morally, culturally and religiously. This is the best way to look at
a baby’s or a child’s development.
SPECL development for the ages 5-6:
Build and keep friendships.
Learn certain behaviour depending
on their environment.
Enjoy being around people and
socialising a lot more.
Confident in walking, running and
Enjoys being active.
Have the ability to write and draw
using their fine motor skills.
Express their feelings clearly.
They understand what criticism is.
They can be reasoned with.
Be able to talk full complete
sentences and hold a conversations.
Sentences are more complex and put
They development a creative
Learn to read, write and count low
Have a better concept of time.
Evaluating methods for assessing development
An important part of early years
practice is the observing and assessments that take place. Staff are
always observing and assessing each child’s progress in development
when interacting with children. Observing children allows early years
workers to assess a child’s strengths and weaknesses in each aspect
of their development and learning. Informal observations may include
making notes of something that’s caught the attention of a worker in
the nursery about a child and then share it with other staff members.
observations do not include ratings. Observers still give written
feedback on the videos or live observations, and may make note of
ratings for their own benefit, however their ratings entries are not
shared with anyone and their feedback goes directly to the teacher to
support coaching.” (help.insightadvance.com,
Observations may be conducting experiments, surveys, case studies,
longitudinal studies, time sampling and naturalistic.
observations include an explicit evaluation component or rating
against the instructional framework.” (help.insightadvance.com,
is very important when observing a child. If any staff wishes to
begin observing a child the must have parental consent but also the
consent of the child. Parents have the right to access any
information about their child according to the Data Protection Act
2003 and the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002.
developmental progress could be observed using a naturalistic
observation and a longitudinal study. Both methods have positives
observations seek to record exactly what is observed in the moment
with being selective.
observation (i.e. unstructured observation) involves studying the
spontaneous behaviour of participants in natural surroundings”
An advantage of
this method is that it not require any special preparation, only a
pen and paper. This method allows you to record anything that is said
or heard. Unless you have development shorthand handwriting or are a
fast writer there is a chance you may miss out on writing down what
you hear and see which is a big disadvantage.
study consists of various observations of an individual child’s
development and learning. Over a period of time (weeks, months, a
years or more) many techniques are used to record the child’s
development and learning.
longitudinal study is an observational research method in which data
is gathered for the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time.
Longitudinal research projects can extend over years or even
this method is that it is easy to pick up behaviour changes over time
and it produces factual information. However, disadvantages would be
that it is very time consuming and not many people stay focus due to
how long the process takes.
Identifying influences and explaining their impact on development.
There are many factors that can have a
positive or negative impact on children’s development. These factors
include: cultural, economic, environmental, genetic, familial,
political, social, technological, parenting, diet, illness and
additional support needs.
The loss of a parent/guardian can have
a huge impact on the development of a child or young person.
Grieving for a loved one takes a long time and is exceptionally
difficult. Most children find grieving extremely hard and
don’t understand how to express the way their feeling and often shy
away or lash out to those around them.
“Grief is a
process that takes time. Some children seem fine, at least initially,
and may even behave better than they did before the death. For
example, they may become quieter and calmer. This can be a sign that
they’re hiding their feelings, putting on a brave face or simply
trying not to upset others.”
(whatis.techtarget.com, Online, 2016)
Lily has recently gone through the loss
of the father at such a young age and due to this her social
behaviour isn’t at the average it should be for the age she is. She
regularly sits on her own during school lunch times and break times
and much prefers to be left on her on rather than playing with groups
of children but will socialise more when her mother is around.
Not socialising at such a young age can
hold Lily back in many aspects of her development. It can cause her
behaviour to regress at a fast or slow pace depending on how hard it
is for Lily to express how she is feeling. Lily can fall behind on
her language and cognitive development in terms of her speech,
reading and having the imagination expected from children from a
similar age group. This could affect Lily when building
relationships or maintaining friendships.
If Lily had some support and
encouragement when interacting with other children or adults there
would be a high possibility for improvement in her development.
Living in an environment surrounding by
positive factors such as schools, parks and local facilities can have
an effective impact on Lily’s development.
Lily’s attends a dancing class 3 days a
week which helps her in many aspects of her development. Physically,
Lily will be growing, learning and building her strengths and
weaknesses up whilst attending her dancing class. Being with groups
of children a similar age to Lily she will learn how to socialise and
bond with the other children. This will have a positive impact on
her social development and will allow her to grow more confident.
Analysing positive influences that could contribute to potential
A positive influence on Lily’s
development is she has a very positive environment. For example her
school supports her in various ways. Frome Lily being withdrawn from
making friends and socialising with other children her school can a
nurture group to help Lily through her difficult time and encourage
her in expressing her feelings about how she is dealing with grief.
“Nurture Groups have many models
but some of the core components that are present in a Nurture Group
include a focus on: understanding attachment and early development;
relationships and adults modelling; social and emotional growth and
language and the six Nurture Principles.”
Lily also lives near good amenities
such as: parks, cinemas and lots of other exciting things to do for
her age group. Lily loves to be outdoors so living near a park will
be great for her development and learning. This will allow her to
explore and play in an outdoors environment which will allow Lily to
feel a lot happier.