Task transport to different parts of the cell.

Task 1:  Mitochondria are rod-shaped organelles located within a cell. The two membranes (outer & inner) contain proteins and phospholipids. The inner membrane folds in and out which gives the inner membrane an increased surface area, these forms of folds within the inner membrane is called Cristae. The Mitochondria contains a liquid called the Matrix and within this liquid like substance that contains ribosomes, enzymes and granules. Mitochondria function is to deal with aerobic respiration and production of ATP. Golgi apparatus is only located within eukaryotic cells. The Golgi Apparatus has foundations of stacks called Cisternae, within the Golgi Apparatus contains Tubules and Vesicles which there are variations of; smooth vesicles or coated vesicles. Its function is to synthesise the macromolecules to package them into vesicles to transport to different parts of the cell. Endoplasmic reticulum is said to be located within majority of all eukaryotic cells. Its structure is formed by a two types of reticulum. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum and the rough endoplasmic reticulum.  The endoplasmic reticulum receives mRna and processes and packages proteins with codes in order to send them to the right location. Task 3: Diffusion does not require any energy, it is the natural equilibrium of substances in the atmosphere Diffusion moves molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration through the membrane for example small non-polar molecules would be able to diffuse through the membrane without the assistance of carrier proteins.  Passive transport involves channel proteins that allow the movement of larger molecules across the plasma membrane without the need of ATP/energy. Similarly to diffusion in passive transport molecules which are non-polar or small enough to pass through the plasma membrane without the need of ATP/energy.  Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of higher water potential to a lower water potential, which can be defined as moving from an area of low solute concentration to an area of low solute concentration. Water would pass through the membrane via a channel protein because water is polar. Active transport a carrier protein that when activated will transport a solute across the membrane this form of diffusion is used to send molecules against the concentration gradient. This occurs across the plasma membrane where molecules are moved through the carrier protein using ATP/energy. Sodium Potassium pump a very specific pump that works by transporting the Sodium and Potassium It makes use of ATP via hydrolysis. This specific pump is present in neuronal cells and the action of which is integral to depolarisation of the neurons. This pump controls and maintain the charge within a cell.