The main aim of this chapter to examine activities of the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations (UNPKO) in the post cold war era along with the comparison of basic factors of the behind the origin of peacekeeping operations in cold-war era which influenced the methodology of peacekeeping operation in the post cold war era. The term ‘peacekeeping’ has not mentioned in the UN Charter and not given fixed and detailed meaning. Many of the terms used by the politicians and commentators to introduce various UN activities which are now universally accepted. The word ‘peace’ and relatively terms such as peacekeeping, peacekeepers, peace-enforcement, peace-making, peace-building, peace-maintenance are make special attention. These all terminology concern with the idea of the peacekeeping had been used in different time period. The idea of the peacekeeping has changed which was undertaken in the league of nations and the early twenty century undertaken by the UN in 1950.(O’neill:5)
The United Nations was established in 1945 after the destruction of the second world war. Since, its inception UN has started planning to maintain international peace and security around the world and established environment in which peace process may flourish. In 1948, UN field mission United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) was the first ever peacekeeping operation established to observe, monitor ceasefire, supervise armistice agreements. Since then, almost 71 Peacekeeping mission has operated, 15 peace mission has currently running. Total 1721 personnel fatalities in current operation and 3654 fatalities in all peace mission. 106544 total personnel serving in currently 15 peace mission, contributed by 125 countries. (UN peacekeeping: 20 December 2017). Its over 70-year experience in present multidimensional peacekeeping operation work closely with UN agencies, funds and programs to deliver a join UN response to conflict region in around the world. (UN civil affair hand book:11)
the definition of peacekeeping has different view, in the Peacekeepers Handbook the International Peace Academy (IPA:1984) defined peacekeeping as: The prevention, containment, moderation, and termination of hostilities between or within states, through the medium of a peaceful third-party intervention organized and directed internally, using multinational forces of soldiers, police and civilians to restore and maintain peace. (Peacekeepers Handbook IPA:1984), One notable commentator uses the term: To refer to any international effort involving an operational component to promote the termination of armed conflict or the resolution of long standing disputes. (1Diehl, Paul(145) in O’neil and rees 4 1993)
Boutros-Ghali, the sixth Secretary- General of the UN defined the term peacekeeping, preventive diplomacy and peacemaking integrally related and as used in this report are defined as follows: in ‘agenda for peace(1992) he indicated that these three as a manner : ‘peacekeeping is the deployment of a United Nations presence in the field, hitherto with the consent of all the parties concerned, normally involving United Nations military and/or police personnel and frequently civilians as well. Peace-keeping is a technique that expands the possibilities for both the prevention of conflict and the making of peace’. Along with term of peacekeeping he indicated other three terms preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, peacebuilding which were closely related to peacekeeping and the UN involved in these four main activities. Preventive diplomacy is action to prevent disputes from arising between parties, to prevent existing disputes from escalating into conflicts and to limit the spread of the latter when they occur. Peacemaking is action to bring hostile parties to agreement, essentially through such peaceful means as those foreseen in Chapter VI of the Charter of the United Nations. Peace building is an action of post-conflict to identify and support structures which will tend to structures which will tend to strengthen and solidify peace in order to avoid a relapse into conflict(Agenda for Peace : 1992 : para20-21)
Idea of the collective security and the peacekeeping operation: – All theory of international politics narrowly divided in to two parts pessimistic and optimistic. Pessimistic assume international environment always involve in the struggle for power, war, noncooperation and unpeaceful. Therefore, they consider that there is no chance to collective or organized response against the threat of international peace and security. Optimistic focus on those area and means which are helpful to establish international peace and security. ‘At a theoretical level the logic of collective security rest on the assumption that the interest of sovereign nations is in maintain peace, and that they are willing and able to collectively respond to threat to the peace. In instance where threats to peace occur the states must be willing to respond in an organized and collective way so as to ensure that peace is either maintained or restored’.(O’Neill &Rees :4) An initial attempt of collective security was made into the Convent of the League of Nations, under the Articles 10 and 11. ‘the member of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League(Article 10). Any war or threat of war, whether immediately affecting any of the Members of the League or not, is hereby declared a matter of concern to the whole League, and the League shall take any action that may be deemed wise and effectual to safeguard the peace of nations (art. 11). As a practice these provisions were not applies when Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931, Italy attack on Ethiopia in1935-36 and Germany army entered in the Rhineland in 1936. Pessimistic theoretical perspective conquered to comprehensive the international system. Optimistic theoretical perspective learns in light of these experience, the commitment to collective security in the United Nations Charter was unexpectedly base established to ensure peace, under the Article 1 of the charter. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace.(Article 1 of the UN charter).
The Charter provide main responsibility of peace on the Security Council (Article 24). The Charter offered two possible routes, with the chapter VI focused on the ‘pacific settlement of disputes’, and Chapter VII, ‘action with respect to threat to the peace, breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression’. In practice, development of the peacekeeping in relation to Chapter VI and VII differed considerably from the idea of collective security. (Bennett : 1988:145). The idea of collective security based on the principle is that “an attack against one, is an attack against all. Majority of UN peacekeeping operations were not function as such in the charter. Chapter Six of the Charter provide the UN the power of meditate in international disputes between states and recommend terms of a settlement. In this context, the UN depends on the states to carry out voluntarily the decision of the Security Council. Chapter Seven of the Charter is more powerful, Article 42 of this chapter provide the authority to use the armed forces of member states to maintain or restore international peace and security.
The UN operation in Korea 1950-1953 was conducted under the purposefully resolution of the Security Council and the General Assemble. The Gulf War, and UNITAF (Operation Restore Hope) and UNOSOM II in Somalia, are the only operations for which the security Council cited Chapter Seven to permit coercive force in carrying out in resolution. (John F. Hillen III UN collective Security: Chapter six and half : 1994;29 http://ssi.armywarcollege.edu/pubs/parameters/Articles/1994/1994%20hillen.pdf)
During cold war era , the United Nations peacekeeping operation guided by many unwritten and written principle. The term ‘peacekeeping’ was first used after the UN operations in Egypt (1956–67), Congo (1960–4), and Cyprus (1974–)(O’Nill &Rees :30). In the cold-war era peacekeeping operation was based on the traditional method of peacekeeping in which peacekeepers target as a peacemaking not peacebuilding.
An overview of peacekeeping operations: – in the looking period of cold war from the 1946 to 1986 UN has experienced twelve peacekeeping operation. Four out of twelve peacekeeping operation currently running.( see table 2.1). ‘armed’ and ‘unarmed’ were two kind of peacekeeping operation during this period. First peacekeeping operation, the UN Truce Supervisor Organization(UNTSO) was unarmed. It consist of unarmed military observers who were sent to Palestine for monitoring ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating and assist other UN peacekeeping operations in the region to fulfill their respective mandates. (Annexure:3) A similar group – UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) was deployed in 1949 to supervise the ceasefire between India and Pakistan in the State of Jammu and Kashmir. These observers, under the command of the Military Adviser appointed by the UN Secretary-General, formed the nucleus of the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan. (Annexure :3), the UN Emergency Force (UNEF I) was the first armed operation deployed in the Sinai Peninsula to secure and supervise the cessation of hostilities, including the withdrawal of the armed forces of France, Israel and the United Kingdom from Egyptian territory and , after the withdrawal, to serve as a buffer between the Egyptian and Israeli forces.(Annexure :3). these peacekeeping operation provide UN working model and administrative practice for future operation and were the subject of the Dag Hammarskjold’s report in which he outlined the role of Secretariat in peacekeeping operation. That time these armed and unarmed operation were the greatest challenge for the UN.(O’Neill &Rees:21)
Table 2.1 UN peacekeeping operation during the Cold War.
DOMREP- Dominican Republic
UNSF- West New Guinea
UNFIC YP -Cyprus
UNTSO- Middle East
UNEF I- Middle East
UNEF II- Middle East
During the Cold war period world politics surrounding on the struggle between East- West leaded by the USA and USSR. Both are the permanent member of the UN Security Council. they did not play significant role in the UN peacekeeping operation. The main countries contribute during the Cold War period were included Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Fiji, Finland, Ghana, India, Ireland, Italy, Nepal, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Senegal, Sweden and the Netherlands. Some countries had developing both good and poor reputation to contribute in the overall commitment like training program of military personnel, equipment, contingents for peacekeepers. The size of such operation significantly in the cold war period, with only UNEF I and UNEF II, ONUC, UNFICYP and UNIFIL exceeding 3000 personnel. The largest operation was deployed in the Congo in which 15000 to 20000 peacekeepers involved from the 34 Countries. (O’Neill and Rees 22 ).