Two a person will have a sudden urge

Two
sleep disorders are insomnia and narcolepsy. Insomnia is when a person
has a consistent problem either falling or staying asleep. This is also one of
the most common sleep disorders that plague people. This sleep disorder is also
tied to depression which is also very common mental illness. The main causes of
insomnia include mental illness, drug and alcohol abuse, stress, age, and any
sleep changes. One treatment that would help with insomnia but would lead to a
tolerance would be sleeping pills. Sleeping pills can help a person in falling
and staying asleep but the quality of sleep could be worsened because the
subject won’t be hitting REM sleep as often. Also, as I stated before
the subject will over time develop a tolerance of the drug and as a result will
need more to fall asleep. A second sleep disorder is Narcolepsy, this is
when a person will have a sudden urge to sleep at any given time. This sleep
disorders main symptom is when a person is triggered by overwhelming stress or
any time of excitement. The causes of narcolepsy are usually due to a
neurological disorder, or the brain not producing enough orexin. One treatment
for Narcolepsy that won’t cure it but can help in reducing and managing it
would be stimulants.

Some
people get addicted to painkillers like OxyContin because at first, the drug
helps reduce pain and allow for the user to feel high. But with repeated use of
the drug the brain will eventually stop making endorphins which is what OxyContin
mimics as it is an opiate. This drug is also a drug that is very easy to
get addicted to even if you are taking them as prescribed by a doctor, especially
because some may be predisposed to addiction if it runs in their family. The
changes that occur in the brain that create addiction are the brain and body developing
a tolerance for the drug. This makes the user have to up their dosage to
recreate the original high they got with the first few times they used the
drug. A second change in the brain would be that the drug is giving the brain
endorphins without having to create them. So eventually the brain will stop
producing these endorphins altogether leaving the user in a state of withdrawal
if they stop taking the drug. Tolerance can be reversed if one stops
taking the drug. With the second change in the brain again if a person stops
taking the drug the brain will eventually start producing endorphins again, but
to avoid having withdrawals a user needs to be weaned off the drug to
give the brain time to restart the pituitary gland producing endorphins. It is
best for a user to seek proper help to wean off of a drug the right way.

A real-life example of classical conditioning
that I’ve heard about is someone being scared when they see a dog. The unconditioned
stimulant would be someone screaming every time someone sees a dog. The unconditioned
response would be the subject jumping and would be scared when someone
screams because that is just what most people would naturally do to someone
screaming. The conditioned stimulant would be seeing a dog, and the conditioned
response would be to jump and be scared because the subject now associates
seeing a dog with someone screaming. To make this learned relationship extinct
would be to not scream when the subject sees a dog, this will take a while for
the relationship to become fully extinct.